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Table 1 Characteristics of workers and their biological parameters

From: Confounders in the assessment of the renal effects associated with low-level urinary cadmium: an analysis in industrial workers

  Acrylic blanket factory workers Zinc smelter workers Two-way ANOVA
  Never-smokers Ex-smokers Current smokers Never-smokers Ex-smokers Current smokers Occupation Smoking Interaction
N (%) 19 (36.5) 12 (23.1) 21 (40.4) 41 (30.6) 38 (28.4) 55 (41.0)    
Age (years) 40.6 (10.1) 42.4 (8.4) 39.6 (8.4) 35.5 (10.1) 42.7 (10.6) 39.0 (10.9) 0.29 0.10 0.36
BMI (kg/m²) 25.1 (3.7) 25.2 (4.0) 23.3 (3.4)* 26.1 (2.9) 25.8 (3.1) 24.3 (3.3)* 0.07 0.004 0.94
Employment (years) 10.6 (7.3) 12 (8.3) 9.6 (7.1) 9.4 (10.3) 14.7 (8.8) 12.2 (9.3) 0.36 0.22 0.46
Pack-years (N) - 14.9 (9.4) 18.8 (11.8) - 14.2 (7.6) 17.5 (9.20) 0.87 - -
B-Pb (μg/l) 46 (36-58) 55 (44-58) 49 (36-59) 95 (76-137) 89(70-116) 116 (86-143) <0.001 0.51 0.34
B-Cd (μg/l) 0.40 (0.30-0.45) 0.50 (0.45-0.85) 0.90 (0.70-1.23)* $ 0.50 (0.30-0.70) 0.60 (0.40-0.80) 1.20 (0.80-1.70)* $ 0.09 <0.001 0.92
U-Cd (μg/g cr) 0.53 (0.37-0.68) 0.78 (0.67-0.90) 0.65 (0.48-1.02) 0.48 (0.37-0.81) 0.76 (0.55-1.18)* 1.00 (0.70-1.37)* 0.37 <0.001 0.19
U-Zn (mg/g cr) 0.23 (0.18-0.35) 0.28 (0.27-0.39) 0.26 (0.21-0.32) 0.26 (0.16-0.40) 0.28 (0.21-0.48) 0.32 (0.20-0.47) 0.34 0.19 0.38
U-ALB (mg/g cr) 5.4 (3.4-8.5) 6.9 (4.7-9.1) 5.6 (4.0-9.6) 7.9 (5.0-10.8) 8.3 (4.2-12.4) 7.8 (4.7-14.3) 0.09 0.28 0.97
U-Protein-HC (mg/g cr) 9.3 (5.9-17.4) 15.5 (10.9-18.6) 13.1 (8.6-22.7) 9.4 (5.5-14.1) 12.6 (8.5-20.8) 16.0 (9.9-27.5)* 0.82 0.01 0.63
U-RBP (mg/g cr) 120 (91.3-146) 149 (107-232) 153 (102-194) 122 (85-161) 123 (90-152) 172 (141-200) 0.74 0.01 0.99
U-Creatinine(g/l) 1.14 (0.91-1.73) 1.10 (0.94-1.33) 1.18 (0.95-1.51) 1.31 (0.88-1.78) 1.27 (0.85-1.66) 1.08 (0.78-1.51) 0.73 0.44 0.77
  1. * significantly different from neversmokers $significantly different from ex-smokers by the test of Tukey-Kramer. Age, body mass index (BMI), duration of exposure and number of pack-years are given as mean with standard deviation. Concentrations of biomarkers in urine and blood are described as median with interquartile range (IQR).