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Table 3 Predictors of RBP, protein HC and albumin in urine according to different modes of expression of results and adjustment for the residual influence of diuresis

From: Confounders in the assessment of the renal effects associated with low-level urinary cadmium: an analysis in industrial workers

  Concentrations of urinary markers per liter Concentrations of urinary markers per g creatinine
Dependent variable Independent variables B 95% CI P Independent variables B 95% CI P
RBP in urine Model 1     Model 1    
  Log U-Cd 10.7 65.6 to 147.8 <0.001 Current smoking 27.4 9.1 to 46.0 0.004
      Log U-Cd 30.9 1.81 to 60.0 0.04
  Model 2     Model 2    
  Current smoking 34.2 10.3 to 58.2 0.005 Current smoking 27.4 9.1 to 46.0 0.004
  Log U-Cd 34.7 -3.83 to 73.3 0.08 Log U-Cd 30.9 1.81 to 60.0 0.04
  Log U-Cr 285.7 220.0 to 350.6 <0.001     
  Model 3     Model 3    
  Current smoking 34.2 10.3 to 58.2 0.005 Current smoking 28.8 10.3 to 47.3 0.003
  Log U-Cd adj 34.7 -3.82 to 73.3 0.07 Log U-Cd adj 25.4 -4.5 to 55.2 0.10
  Log U-Cr 308.0 248.0 to 367.3 <0.001     
Log U-Protein HC Model 1     Model 1    
  Age 0.009 0.005 to 0.013 <0.001 Age 0.009 0.005 to 0.014 <0.001
  Current smoking 0.14 0.054 to 0.22 0.001 Current smoking 0.12 0.02 to 0.22 0.02
  Log U-Cd -0.039 -0.16 to 0.086 0.54 Log U-Cd 0.13 -.033 to 0.29 0.12
  Model 2     Model 2    
  Age 0.007 0.003 to 0.011 <0.001 Age 0.008 0.003 to 0.13 0.002
  Current smoking 0.11 0.03 to 0.20 0.008 Current smoking 0.011 0.18 to 0.21 0.02
  Log U-Cd 0.05 -0.084 to 0.19 0.46 Log U-Cd 0.081 -0.079 to 0.24 0.32
  Log U-Cr -0.36 -0.59 to -0.13 0.003 Log U-Cr -0.47 -0.72 to -0.22 <0.001
  Model 3     Model 3    
  Age 0.007 0.003 to 0.011 <0.001 Age 0.008 0.003 to 0.013 0.002
  Current smoking 0.11 0.03 to 0.20 0.008 Current smoking 0.011 0.018 to 0.21 0.02
  Log U-Cd adj 0.05 -0.084 to 0.19 0.46 Log U-Cd adj 0.081 -0.079 to 0.24 0.32
  Log U-Cr -0.33 -0.54 to -0.12 0.003 Log U-Cr -0.52 -0.75 to -0.25 <0.001
Log U-ALB Model 1     Model 1    
  Log U-Cd 0.39 0.201 to 0.58 <0.001 Log U-Cd 0.19 0.012 to 1.00 0.04
  Model 2     Model 2    
  Log U-Cd 0.20 0.02 to 0.39 0.03 Log U-Cd 0.19 0.012 to 1.00 0.04
  Log U-Cr 0.86 0.54 to 1.18 <0.001     
  Model 3     Model 3    
  Log U-Cd adj 0.20 0.02 to 0.39 0.03 Log U-Cd adj 0.20 0.016 to 0.39 0.03
  Log U-Cr 0.99 0.69 to 1.29 <0.001     
  1. U-Cdadj, concentration of Cd expressed per g of creatinine and adjusted for the residual influence of urinary creartinine on the basis of the simple regression coefficient (Figure 1). The regression coefficients were estimated by stepwise multiple regression analyses testing as predictors age, BMI, Pb in blood, Zn in urine, current smoking, number of pack-years (>0-15 and >15).