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Table 2 RMSE ratios from comparison of bipollutant models (RR1 = 1.05, RR2 = 1) with and without measurement error

From: A simulation study to quantify the impacts of exposure measurement error on air pollution health risk estimates in copollutant time-series models

   δspatial δpopulation δtotal
Main pol.a Co-pol.a Main pol. Co-pol. Main pol. Co-pol. Main pol. Co-pol.
CO NOx 6.6 1.9 1.9 0.4 8.0 0.5
EC 8.2 1.3 1.3 0.6 8.1 0.7
PM2.5 11.1 1.4 1.5 0.4 10.9 0.5
SO4 11.0 1.2 1.4 0.5 10.9 0.6
O3 11.5 1.2 1.5 0.3 12.2 0.4
NOx CO 6.0 1.8 13.7 2.0 16.9 2.0
EC 6.1 1.1 13.3 1.6 16.1 0.6
PM2.5 9.1 1.2 23.6 0.5 23.4 0.5
SO4 10.3 1.1 25.6 0.6 24.1 0.6
O3 10.4 1.1 25.8 0.3 26.1 0.4
EC CO 7.9 1.8 6.6 1.1 13.3 1.7
NOx 6.6 1.6 6.6 0.3 13.3 0.4
PM2.5 10.3 1.3 11.4 0.4 17.4 0.5
SO4 11.4 1.1 14.0 0.6 18.0 0.6
O3 12.1 1.1 13.5 0.3 19.0 0.4
PM2.5 CO 2.9 1.8 11.4 1.0 13.5 1.9
NOx 2.9 1.8 11.1 0.2 13.2 0.4
EC 2.7 1.3 10.4 0.6 12.4 0.8
SO4 2.5 1.2 9.4 0.5 10.7 0.7
O3 2.9 1.0 12.1 0.3 13.7 0.3
SO4 CO 2.1 1.7 9.6 1.0 10.5 1.6
NOx 2.0 1.6 9.6 0.2 10.6 0.4
EC 2.1 1.2 9.4 0.6 10.0 0.7
PM2.5 1.9 1.2 6.8 0.4 8.4 0.5
O3 2.0 1.0 9.0 0.3 10.1 0.3
O3 CO 1.8 1.6 8.2 1.0 8.3 1.6
NOx 1.9 1.8 8.5 0.2 8.9 0.3
EC 1.8 1.1 8.3 0.6 8.6 0.6
PM2.5 1.8 1.1 8.1 0.4 8.8 0.4
SO4 1.8 1.0 7.8 0.6 8.0 0.5
  1. aIn simulations, all main pollutants had RR = 1.05, and all co-pollutants had RR = 1. For each pollutant pair, 1000 simulations were run and results averaged