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Table 3 Prevalence exposures and association between periconceptional maternal occupational exposure and all oral clefts, cleft palate (CP), and cleft lip with/without cleft palate (CL(P)) using non-chromosomal/non-monogenic malformed controls

From: Maternal occupational exposure and oral clefts in offspring

Exposure Diagnosis Prevalence exposure
n % OR 95% CI aORa 95%CI
Any agent Non-chromosomal control 1642 37.7 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 170 43.9 1.3 1.0–1.6 1.3 1.0–1.6
CP 42 33.9 0.8 0.6–1.2 0.8 0.6–1.2
CL(P) 128 48.7 1.6 1.2–2.0 1.5 1.2–2.0
Solvents Non-chromosomal control 1075 24.7 Ref    
All oral cleft 103 26.6 1.1 0.9–1.4 1.1 0.9–1.4
CP 29 23.4 0.9 0.6–1.4 0.9 0.6–1.4
CL(P) 74 28.1 1.2 0.9–1.6 1.2 0.9–1.6
 Aromatic solvents Non-chromosomal control 140 3.2 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 17 4.4 1.4 0.8–2.3 1.4 0.8–2.3
CP 5 4.0 1.3 0.5–3.1 1.3 0.5–3.1
CL(P) 12 4.6 1.4 0.8–2.6 1.5 0.8–2.7
 Chlorinated solvents Non-chromosomal control 190 4.4 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 18 4.7 1.1 0.7–1.8 1.1 0.7–1.8
CP 4 3.2 0.7 0.3–2.0 0.7 0.3–2.0
CL(P) 14 5.3 1.2 0.7–2.2 1.3 0.7–2.2
 Other solvents Non-chromosomal control 1042 23.9 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 99 25.6 1.1 0.9–1.4 1.1 0.9–1.4
CP 28 22.6 0.9 0.6–1.4 0.9 0.6–1.4
CL(P) 71 27.0 1.2 0.9–1.6 1.2 0.9–1.6
Pesticides Non-chromosomal control 88 2.0 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 14 3.6 1.8 1.0–3.2 1.7 1.0–3.1
CP 5 4.0 2.0 0.8–5.1 1.9 0.8–4.8
CL(P) 9 3.4 1.7 0.9–3.4 1.7 0.8–3.4
 Fungicides Non-chromosomal control 70 1.6 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 13 3.4 2.1 1.2–3.9 2.0 1.1–3.7
CP 5 4.0 2.6 1.0–6.5 2.4 0.9–6.0
CL(P) 8 3.0 1.8 0.9–3.6 1.9 0.9–4.0
 Herbicides Non-chromosomal control 36 0.8 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 6 1.6 1.9 0.8–4.5 1.8 0.8–4.4
CP 1 0.8 1.0 0.1–7 2 0.9 0.1–7.0
CL(P) 5 1.9 2.3 0.9–6.0 2.3 0.9–5.9
 Insecticides Non-chromosomal control 84 1.9 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 14 3.6 1.9 1.1–3.4 1.8 1.0–3.2
CP 5 4.0 2.1 0.9–5.4 2.0 0.8–5.0
CL(P) 9 3.4 1.8 0.9–3.6 1.7 0.9–3.5
Heavy metals Non-chromosomal control 44 1.0 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 4 1.0 1.0 0.4–2.9 1.1 0.4–3.0
CP 1 0.8 0.8 0.1–5.8 0.9 0.1–6.3
CL(P) 3 1.1 1.1 0.3–3.7 1.2 0.4–3.8
Dust Control 1346 30.9 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 146 37.7 1.4 1.1–1.7 1.3 1.1–1.6
CP 37 28.8 1.0 0.6–1.4 0.9 0.6–1.4
CL(P) 109 41.4 1.6 1.2–2.0 1.5 1.2–2.0
 Organic dust Non-chromosomal control 1288 29.6 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 142 36.7 1.4 1.1–1.7 1.3 1.1–1.7
CP 36 29.0 1.0 0.7–1.4 1.0 0.6–1.4
CL(P) 106 40.3 1.6 1.2–2.1 1.6 1.2–2.0
 Mineral dust Non-chromosomal control 396 9.1 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 40 10.3 1.2 0.8–1.6 1.1 0.8–1.6
CP 9 7.3 0.8 0.4–1.6 0.8 0.4–1.5
CL(P) 31 11.8 1.3 0.9–2.0 1.3 0.9–1.9
Gases and fumes Non-chromosomal control 1521 34.9 Ref   Ref  
All oral cleft 126 32.6 0.8 0.7–1.1 0.9 0.7–1.1
CP 29 23.4 0.6 0.4–0.9 0.6 0.4–0.9
CL(P) 97 36.9 1.1 0.8–1.4 1.1 0.8–1.4
  1. aOdds ratio adjusted for child sex, and previous births. Bold values represent significant values